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References (alphabetical order)
Overview of the Paleozoic era
  1. Fox D (2016) What sparked the Cambrian explosion? Nature 530 : 268–270. (DOI:10.1038/530268a).
  2. Hrycaj SM, Wellik DM (2016) Hox genes and evolution [version 1; peer review: 3 approved]. F1000Research 5 ((F1000 Faculty Rev):859. (DOI:10.12688/f1000research.7663.1)
  3. Holland PW (2015) Did homeobox gene duplications contribute to the Cambrian explosion? Zoological Lett. 1(1). (DOI: 10.1186/s40851-014-0004-x)
  4. Pappas S (2013) Paleozoic Era: Facts & Information. Live Sience June 20, 2013
  5. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center - Forces of Change, Atmosphere -
  6. Sperling EA, Frieder CA, Raman AV, Girguis PR, Levin LA, Knoll AH (2013) Oxygen, ecology, and the Cambrian radiation of animals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110(33):13446-13451. (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1312778110)
  7. UCMP - University of California Museum of Paleontolgy - (Legacy Exhibits Online, Tour of Geologic TIme)
Each Period of the Paleozoic era
  1. National Geographics Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian
  2. Pappas S (2013) Paleozoic Era: Facts & Information Live Sience June 20, 2013
  3. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Forces of Change - Atmosphere -
  4. UCMP - University of California Museum of Paleontolgy - (Legacy Exhibits Online, Tour of Geologic TIme)
Cambrian
- A -
Acanthostega gunnari
  1. Coates MI, Clack JA (1990) Polydactyly in the earliest known tetrapod limbs. [abstract] Nature 347:66-69 (DOI:10.1038/347066a0)
  2. Devonian times
  3. Clack JA (2006) Acanthostega. Acanthostega gunnari. Version 13 June 2006. in The Tree of Life Web Project
Akmonistion zangerli
  1. Coates MI, Sequeira SEK (2001) A new Stethacanthid Chondrichthyan from the lower Carboniferous of Bearsden, Scotland. J. Vert. Paleontol. 21(3):438–459. ((DOI: 10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0438:ANSCFT]2.0.CO;2).
  2. Zangeri R (1984) On the microscopic anatomy and possible function of the spine-"brush" complex of Stethacanthus (Elasmobranchii: Symmoriida). [abstract] J. Vert. Paleontol. 4(3):372-378. (DOI:10.1080/02724634.1984.10012016
Ammonoidea
  1. Digital Atlas of Ancient Life (Paleontological Research Instituition) - Ammonoidea -
  2. Mironenko AA (2015) The soft-tissue attachment scars in Late Jurassic ammonites from Central Russia. Acta Palaeontol.Pol. 60(4):981-1000. (DOI:10.4202/app.00041.2013)
  3. Monks N, Young JR (1998) Body position and the functional morphology of Cretaceous Heteromorph ammonites. Palaeontol. Electron. 1(1;1A):15. (DOI: 10.26879/98001).
Anomalocaris
  1. The Anomalocaris Homepage
  2. Daley AC, Paterson JR, Edgecombe GD, García‐Bellido DC, Jago JB (2013) New anatomical information on Anomalocaris from the Cambrian Emu Bay Shale of South Australia and a reassessment of its inferred predatory habits. Palaeontology 56(5):971–990. (DOI:10.1111/pala.12029.)
  3. Daley AC, Edgecombe GD (2014) Morphology of Anomalocaris canadensis from the Burgess Shale. [abstract] J. Paleontol., 88(1):68-91. (DOI:10.1666/13-067.)
  4. Royal Ontario Museum. The Burgess Shale, Fossil Gallery
  5. Van Roy P, Daley A, Briggs D (2015) Anomalocaridid trunk limb homology revealed by a giant filter-feeder with paired flaps. [abstract] Nature 522:77–80. (DOI: 10.1038/nature14256.)
  6. Sheppard KA, Rival DE, Caron JB (2018) On the hydrodynamics of Anomalocaris tail fins. Integr. Comp. Biol. 58(4): 703–711. (DOI: 10.1093/icb/icy014.)
  7. Zeng H, Zhao F, Yin Z, Zhu M (2018) Morphology of diverse radiodontan head sclerites from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, south-west China. [abstract] J. Syst. Palaeontol. 16(1):1-37. (DOI:10.1080/14772019.2016.1263685.)
Arandaspis prionotolepis
  1. Australia : The land where time began
  2. Janvier P (1997) Arandaspida. Version 01 January 1997 (under construction). in The Tree of Life Web Project
  3. Long J (2014) The oldest fish in the world lived 500 million years ago. The Conversation, June 12,2014(AEST) (accessed 2019.05.11)
  4. Prehistoric Wildlife(accessed 2019.05.11)
  5. Ritchie A. Gilbert-Tomlinson J. (1977) First Ordovician vertebrates from the Southern hemisphere. [abstract] Alcheringa 1(4), p351-368.(DOI:10.1080/03115517708527770)
- B -
Bothriolepis canadensis
  1. Béchard I, Arsenault F, Cloutier R, Kerr J (2014) The Devonian placoderm fish Bothriolepis canadensis revisited with three-dimensional digital imagery. Palaeontologia Electronica 17(1.2A): 19p. (DOI:10.26879/417)
  2. Downs JP, Donoghue PCJ (2009) Skeletal histology of Bothriolepis canadensis (Placodermi, Antiarchi) and evolution of the skeleton at the origin of jawed vertebrates. [abstract] J.Morphol. 270(11):1364-1380. (DOI: 10.1002/jmor.10765.)
  3. Downs JP, Criswell KE, Daeschler EB (2011) Mass mortality of juvenile Antiarchs (Bothriolepis sp.) from the Catskill Formation (Upper Devonian, Famennian Stage), Tioga County, Pennsylvania. [abstract] Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 161(1):191-203. (DOI: 10.1635/053.161.0111.)
  4. Patten W (1904) New facts concerning Bothriolepis. Biological Bulletin 7(2): 113-124. (DOI: 10.2307/1535537)
  5. Prehistoric Wildlife
  6. Weems RE, Beem KA, Miller TA (1981) A new species Bothriolepis (Placodermi: Bothriolepidae) from the Upper Devonian of Virginia (U.S.A.) Proc. Biol. Soc.Wash. 94(4):984-1004.
- C -
Cephalaspis sp.
  1. Allis Jr EP (1931) Concerning the mouthopening and certain features of the visceral endoskelton of Cephalaspis. J Anat. 65(Pt 4): 509–527.
  2. Carlsson A (2006) Description of a new osteostracan species from Ukrainewith a brief analysis of the interrelationships of Scolenaspida. Uppsala University.
  3. Denison RH (1956) A review of the habitat of the earliest vertebrates. In Fieldiana: Geology; Vol.11 No.8. Chicago Natural History Museum. Chicago.
  4. Janvier P (1997) Osteostraci. Version 01 January 1997 (under construction). in The Tree of Life Web Project
  5. Prehistoric Wildlife
  6. Stensiö EA (1932) The cephalaspids of Great Britain. British Museum (Natural History). London
  7. White EI (1958) On Cephalaspis lyelli Agassiz. Palaeontology 1(2): 99-105.
Climatius reticulatus
  1. Dearden R (2015) Fossil Focus: Acanthodians. Palaeontology Online Vol. 5, Article 10:1-12.
  2. Devonian Times - More About Acanthodians (spiny fins) -
  3. Palaeos
  4. Prehistoric Wildlife
  5. Watson DMS (1937) II - The Acanthodian Fishes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 228(549): 49-146. (DOI: 10.1098/rstb.1937.0009.)
Coccosteus cuspidatus
  1. Earthwise - British Geological Survey -
  2. Miles R, Westoll T (1968). IX.—The Placoderm Fish Coccosteus cuspidatus Miller ex Agassiz from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. Part I. Descriptive Morphology. [abstract] Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 67(9): 373-476.(DOI:10.1017/S0080456800024078).
  3. Orkney Landscapes - Life in a Middle Devonian Lake -
  4. Prehistoric Wildlife
  5. Young GC (2010) Placoderms (Armored Fish): Dominant Vertebrates of the Devonian Period. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 38:523-550. (DOI: 10.1146/annurev-earth-040809-152507).
- D -
Diplocaulus sp.
  1. Bakker RT, Flis CJ, George CD, Cook LA, Bell TH, Zoehfeld KW (2015) Dimetrodon and the earliest aapex predators : The Craddock Bone Bed and George Ranch facies show that aquatic prey, not herbivores, were key food sources. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 75th Annual Meeting Program & Abstracts. (Technical Session III Wed. Oct 14, 2015).
  2. Cope ED (1877) Descriptions of Extinct Vertebrata from the Permian and Triassic Formamations of the United States. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 17(100) : pp. 182-193
  3. Cope ED (1882) Third Contribution to the History of the Vertebrata of the Permian Formation of Texas. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 20(112) : pp. 447-461
  4. Cruickshank ARI, Skews BW (1980) The functional significance of nectridean tabular horns (Amphibia: Lepospondyli). [abstract] Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 209 : 513-537. (DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1980.0110.)
  5. Douthitt H (1917) The structure and relations of Diplocaulus. (Contributions from Walker Museum, vol.II, No.1The University of Chicago Press. Chicago.
  6. Olson EC (1951) Diplocaulus - A study in growth and variation - . Chicago Natural History Museum Press. Fieldiana: Geology. v.11(2). Chicago.
  7. Zoehfeld KW, Bakker RT, Flis CJ, Pettersson CB, Bell TH (2013) Burros and break-ins on the Texas Permian delta : Stacked aestivating amphibians and attacks by Dimetrodon. [abstract] The Geological Society of America 125th Anniversary Annual Meeting & expo. Paper No.55.
    (also referred to Pappas S (2013) Finned Monster Chomped Heads Off Ancient Amphibians. Live Sicence Oct. 31, 2013. News )
Dunkleosteus terrelli
  1. Anderson PSL, Westneat MW (2007) Feeding mechanics and bite force modelling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator. Biol. Lett. 3:76–79. (DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0569)
  2. Anderson PSL, Westneat MW (2009) A biomechanical model of feeding kinematics for Dunkleosteus terrelli (Arthrodira, Placodermi). [abstract] Paleobiology 35(2) :251-269. (DOI:10.1666/08011.1)
  3. Carr RK (2010) Paleoecology of Dunkleosteus Terrelli (Placodermi: Arthrodira) The Cleveland Museum of Natural History PALEOECOLOGY OF DUNKLEOSTEUS TERRELLI (PLACODERMI: ARTHRODIRA). Kirtlamdia ( The Cleveland Museum of Natural History). No.57:36-45.
  4. Ferrón HG, Pérez CM, Botella H (2017) Ecomorphological inferences in early vertebrates: reconstructing Dunkleosteus terrelli (Arthrodira, Placodermi) caudal fin from palaeoecological data. PeerJ 5:e4081. (DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4081)
  5. Long J, Trinajstic K, Johanson Z (2009) Devonian arthrodire embryos and the origin of internal fertilization in vertebrates. [abstract] Nature 457:1124–1127. (DOI:10.1038/nature07732)
- E -
Eurypterus sp.
  1. Braddy SJ, Dunlop JA (1997) The functional morphology of mating in the Silurian eurypterid, Baltoeyrypterus tetragonophthalmus (Fischer, 1839). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 120(4):435-461.(DOI:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1997.tb01282.x)
  2. Braddy SJ, Poschmann M, Tetlie OE (2007) Giant claw reveals the largest ever arthropod. Biol. Lett. 4:106-109. (DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0491).
  3. Lamsdell JC, Briggs DEG, Liu HP, Witzke BJ, McKay RM (2015) The oldest described eurypterid: a giant Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) megalograptid from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa. BMC Evol Biol 15(169). (DOI:10.1186/s12862-015-0443-9).
  4. Manning PL, Dunlop JA (1995) The respiratory organs of eurypterids Palaeontology 38 : 287-297.
- H -
Hallucigenia sp.
  1. Conway Morris S (1977) A new metazoan from the Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Palaeontology 20(3):623–640
  2. Royal Ontario Museum. The Burgess Shale, Fossil Gallery
  3. Siveter DJ, Briggs DEG, Siveter DJ, Sutton MD, Legg D (2018) A three-dimensionally preserved lobopodian from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UKR. Soc. open sci. 5:172101. (DOI:10.1098/rsos.172101).
  4. Smith M, Caron J (2015) Hallucigenia’s head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans. [abstract] Nature 523, 75–78. (DOI:10.1038/nature14573).
Hurdia victoria
  1. Royal Ontario Museum. The Burgess Shale, Fossil Gallery
  2. Van Roy P, Daley AC, Briggs DEG (2015) Anomalocaridid trunk limb homology revealed by a giant filter-feeder with paired flaps. [abstract] Nature 522:77–80. (DOI:10.1038/nature14256.)
- K -
Kerygmachela kierkegaardi
  1. Budd G (1993) A Cambrian gilled lobopod from Greenland. [abstract] Nature 364: 709-711. (DOI:10.1038/364709a0.)
  2. Budd GE (1998) The morphology and phylogenetic significance of Kerygmachela kierkegaardi Budd (Buen Formation, Lower Cambrian, N Greenland). [abstract] Earth.Env.sci.T.R.So. 89(4): 249–290. (DOI:10.1017/S0263593300002418.)
  3. Harper DAT, Hammarlund EU, Topper TP, Nielsen AT, Rasmussen JA, Park TYS, Smith MP (2019) The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte of North Greenland: a remote window on the Cambrian Explosion. J. Geol. Soc. 176:1023-1037. (DOI:10.1144/jgs2019-043.)
  4. Park TYS, Kihm JH, Woo J, Park C, Lee WY, Smith MP, Harper DAT, Young F, Nielsen AT, V J (2018) Brain and eyes of Kerygmachela reveal protocerebral ancestry of the panarthropod head. (Supplementary Information.) Nat. Commun. 9(1019). (DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-03464-w.)
- M -
Marrella splendens
  1. García-Bellido DC, Collins, DH (2004) Moulting arthropod caught in the act. Nature 429:40. (DOI:10.1038/429040a.)
  2. García-Bellido DC, Collins, DH (2006) A new study of Marrella splendens (Arthropoda, Marrellomorpha) from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada. [abstract] Can. J. Earth Sci. 43(6): 721-742. (DOI:10.1139/e06-012.)
  3. Parker AR (1998) Colour in Burgess Shale animals and the effect of light on evolution in the Cambrian. Proc. Biol. Sci. 265(1400): 967-972. (DOI:10.1098/rspb.1998.0385.)
  4. Siveter DJ, Fortey RA, Sutton MD, Briggs DEG, Siveter DJ (2007) A Silurian ‘marrellomorph’ arthropod. Proc. R. Soc. B 247:2223-2229. (DOI:10.1098/rspb.2007.0712.)
  5. Royal Ontario Museum. The Burgess Shale, Fossil Gallery
- N -
Nectocaris pteryx
  1. Royal Ontario Museum. The burgess Shale, Fossil Gallery
  2. Smith MR, Caron JB (2010) Primitive soft-bodied cephalopods from the Cambrian. [abstract & supplementary information] Nature 465:469-472. (DOI:10.1038/nature09068.)
  3. Smith M (2013). Nectocaridid ecology, diversity, and affinity: Early origin of a cephalopod-like body plan. [abstract] Paleobiology 39(2):297-321. (DOI:10.1666/12029.) Data from: Nectocaridid ecology, diversity, and affinity: early origin of a cephalopod-like body plan (DOI:10.5061/dryad.7m6kg.)
- O -
Odontogriphus omalus
  1. Caron JB, Scheltema A, Schander C, Rudkin D (2006) A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. [abstract & supplementary information] Nature 442:159-163. (DOI:10.1038/nature04894.)
  2. Royal Ontario Museum. The Burgess Shale, Fossil Gallery
  3. Smith MR (2012) Mouthparts of the Burgess Shale fossils Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia: implications for the ancestral molluscan radula. Proc. R. Soc. B. 279:4287–4295.(DOI:10.1098/rspb.2012.1577.)
Opabinia regalis
  1. Budd GE, Daley AC (2011) The lobes and lobopods of Opabinia regalis from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. [abstract] Lethaia 45:83–95. (DOI:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2011.00264.x.)
  2. Briggs DEG (2015) Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) ‘The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia’. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370: 20140313. (DOI:10.1098/rstb.2014.0313.)
  3. Royal Ontario Museum. The Burgess Shale, Fossil Gallery
  4. Whittington, HB (1997) The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 271:1–43. (DOI:10.1098/rstb.1975.0033.)
- P -
Pomatrum ventralis (Xidazoon stephanus)
  1. Aldridge RJ, Xian‐Guang H, Sivester DJ, Sivester DJ, Gabbott SE (2007) The systematics and phylogenetix relationships of Vetulicolians. Palaeontology 50: 131-168. (DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00606.x.)
  2. García-Bellido DC, Lee MSY, Edgecombe GD, Jago JB, Gehling JG, Paterson JR (2014) A new vetulicolian from Australia and its bearing on the chordate affinities of an enigmatic Cambrian group. BMC Evol Biol 14, 214. (DOI:10.1186/s12862-014-0214-z.)
  3. Ou Q, Conway Morris S, Han J, Zhang Z, Liu J, Chen A, Zhang X, Shu D (2012) Evidence for gill slits and a pharynx in Cambrian vetulicolians: implications for the early evolution of deuterostomes. BMC Biol 10, 81. (DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-10-81.)
  4. Shu DG, Conway Morris S, Han J, Chen L, Zhang XL, Zhang ZF, Liu HQ, Liu JN (2001) Primitive deuterostomes from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Lower Cambrian, China). [abstract] Nature 414: 419-424. (DOI:10.1038/35106514.)
  5. Vinther J, Smith MP, Harper DAT (2011) Vetulicolians from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, North Greenland, and the polarity of morphological characters in basal deuterostomes. Palaeontology 54: 711-719. (DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01034.x.)
Pterygotus sp.
  1. Braddy SJ, Dunlop JA (1997) The functional morphology of mating in the Silurian eurypterid, Baltoeyrypterus tetragonophthalmus (Fischer, 1839). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 120(4):435-461.(DOI:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1997.tb01282.x)
  2. Braddy SJ, Poschmann M, Tetlie OE (2007) Giant claw reveals the largest ever arthropod. Biol. Lett. 4:106-109. (DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0491).
  3. Lamsdell JC, Briggs DEG, Liu HP, Witzke BJ, McKay RM (2015) The oldest described eurypterid: a giant Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) megalograptid from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa. BMC Evol Biol 15(169). (DOI:10.1186/s12862-015-0443-9).
  4. Manning PL, Dunlop JA (1995) The respiratory organs of eurypterids Palaeontology 38 : 287-297.
  5. Miller RF (2007) Pterygotus anglicus Agassiz (Chelicerata: Eurypterida) from Atholville, Lower Devonian Campbellton Fromation, New Brunswick, Canada. Palaeontology. 50(4): 981-999.(DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00683.x).
  6. Titlie O (2007) Distribution and dispersal history of Eurypterida (Chelicerata). [abstract] Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.- PALAEOGEOGR PALAEOCLIMATOL. 252:557-574.(DOI:10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.05.011).
- S -
Sacabambaspis janvieri
  1. Gagnier PY, Blieck ARM, Rodrigo S G (1986) First Ordovician vertebrate from south America. [abstract] Geobios 19(5):629-634. (DOI: 10.1016/S0016-6995(86)80058-4.)
  2. Janvier P (1997) Arandaspida. Version 01 January 1997 (under construction). in The Tree of Life Web Project
  3. Pradel A, Sansom IJ, Gagnier PY, Cespedes R, Janvier P (2006) The tail of the Ordovician fish Sacabambaspis. Biol. Lett. 3, 72-75. (DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0557.)
  4. Prehistoric Wildlife(accessed 2019.05.11)
- T -
Trilobite
  1. A Guide to the Orders of Trilobites
  2. American Museum of Naturla History Trilobite Website
  3. Australian Museum What are trilobites ?
  4. Mángano MG, Buatois LA, Astini R, Rindsberg AK (2014) Trilobites in early Cambrian tidal flats and the landward expansion of the Cambrian explosion. [abstract] Geology 42(2):143–146. (DOI:10.1130/G34980.1.)
- W -
Wiwaxia corrugata
  1. Conway Morris S (1985) The Middle Cambrian Metazoan Wiwaxia corrugata (Matthew) from the Burgess Shale and Ogygopsis Shale, British Columbia, Canada. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 307:507 –582. (DOI:10.1098/rstb.1985.0005.)
  2. Parker AR (1998) Colour in Burgess Shale animals and the effect of light on evolution in the Cambrian. Proc. Biol. Sci. 265(1400): 967-972. (DOI:10.1098/rspb.1998.0385.)
  3. Smith MR (2012) Mouthparts of the Burgess Shale fossils Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia: implications for the ancestral molluscan radula. Proc.R.Soc.B. 279: 4287-4295. (DOI:10.1098/rspb.2012.1577.) Data from : Ontogeny, morphology and taxonomy of the soft-bodied Cambrian ‘mollusc’ Wiwaxia. DRYAD (DOI:10.5061/dryad.868sm.)