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Ptomacanthus anglicus
Ptomacanthus #1
  • Ptomacanthus anglicus
  • is a species of Acanthodians lived in the Early Devonian, and was found from the Old Red Sandstone known for the Devonian age strata in England 3).
    The generic name "Ptomacanthus" is derived from the Greek words "ptoma" and "akantha", meaning "corpse" and "thorn" respectively 3). The specific name "anglicus" is named after the Teutonic tribe "Angle" who lived in England in the 5th century 3).
    Ptomacanthus #2
    Ptomacanthus is a relatively large acanthodian, reaching up to 30 cm in length 3), and the dorsal outline is highly arch 1). The head part is also broad, and the eyes are large as in other acanthodians 3).
    There are two dorsal spines, a pair each of pectoral and pelvic spines (webbing are not identified), a anal spine, three pairs of intermediate spines between the pectoral and pelvic spines, two rows of prepectoral spines, and a median spine 1), 3).
    Ptomacanthus #3
    Ptomacanthus probably had lived in the freshwater shallows arround the estuaries 2) and swallowed other animals such as a placoderm Cephalaspis 2), 3).
    Ptomacanthus #4
    Acanthodians, as the early gnathostome, provide a clue to understand the evolution of jawed vertebrates, however, Ptomacanthus has features of both osteichthyans and chondrichthyan, complicating its phylogenetic position 1). Acanthodian themselves, has a challenge, that is monophyly or not 1).
    created in June - December 2023.
    1. Brazeau MD (2012) A revision of the anatomy of the Early Devonian jawed vertebrate Ptomacanthus anglicus Miles. Palaeontology 55(2) : 355 - 367.(DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01130.x.)
    2. Denison RH (1956) A review of the habitat of the earliest vertebrates. In Fieldiana: Geology; Vol.11 No.8. Chicago Natural History Museum. Chicago.
    3. Miles RS (1973) Articulated acanthodian fishes from the Old Red Sandstone of England, with a review of the structure and evolution of the acanthodian shoulder-girdle. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 24 :111 – 213.